Finding Peace in “the City of Man”

Here is an excerpt from a tour I gave of St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City on June 23, 2016:


Two of the most striking buildings in New York City face each other on opposite sides of 5th Avenue: St. Patrick’s Cathedral and Rockefeller Center. The contrast between the two is iconic of the difference between “the City of God” (all that is ordered towards God) and “the city of man” (all that is ordered to man without reference to God).  

Rockefeller Center is a massive monument to the achievements of man. It contrasts starkly with the Cathedral because it is imbued with secular humanism and its art is tinged with the theme of pride and defiance. The overriding emphasis is on man and what he can achieve on his own.

Two of Rockefeller Center’s most prominent works of art – Atlas and Prometheus – are both Greek mythological figures who represent defiance of and freedom from divine power. They were Titans who rebelled against the Olympian gods. Atlas led a war against the Olympians and was punished by being forced to hold up the heavens from the earth for all of time. Prometheus gave man access to the divine secret of fire, contrary to the will of the Olympians, and was punished by being chained to a rock and having his liver eaten for all time by massive eagles.

Statue of Atlas before Saint Patrick's Cathedral. New York City, New York, USA.
Statue of Atlas before Saint Patrick’s Cathedral. New York City, New York, USA.

Rockefeller Center is certainly an impressive place, but its art celebrates something problematic. While it rightfully memorializes laudable achievements of man, it does so with a tone of defiance and hubris. What happens when man is celebrated without reference to God? The Tower of Babel happens: confusion and dissipation. When the proper of hierarchy of being is overturned, peace and order can never be fully achieved.

St. Patrick’s Cathedral offers the antidote for the disorder that is  embodied by the art of Rockefeller Center, and by much of New York City for that matter. Throughout the city, we find proud testaments to the achievements of man, and the enticement of promises of what we ourselves can achieve. We are bombarded by noise, confusion, and distractions, but inside this Cathedral, this place of God, we experience harmony and peace – we experience silence in the city. Outside we experience the dysfunctional city of man; in here we experience the ordered and harmonious City of God.

Outside these doors, the city of man celebrates the emancipation of the ego and idolizes personal freedom. However, inside these doors, the City of God, all things are celebrated in their relationship to God. Contrary to contemporary thought, the ego can only find true fulfillment when it looses itself in God. By allowing itself to be dependent on God, for Whom he was made, the person finds true freedom as  all of his energies and capacities are directed toward their natural end.

The effect of this Neo-Gothic cathedral is to de-center the ego of the person by causing him to reflect upon a cosmos that is greater than himself. Everywhere we look, we see celebrations of the beauty of creation: everything from plants, to humans, to angels. This cathedral thus encourages what Bishop Barron calls a “cosmic consciousness” – an awareness of the whole of creation and our relatively small place in it.

This de-centering of the ego may be disconcerting at first, but it ultimately leads us to peace and tranquility. We slowly begin to realize, contrary to the message that is blared at us outside, that if we trust in God and depend on Him, we will find true happiness. We do not need to grasp and shove and run the daily rat race. All we need to do is center ourselves on God, order ourselves around Him, and everything else will find its place. As Our Lord tells us: “Come to me all you who are weary and heavy-burdened and I will give you rest.”

We cannot escape the fact that we live in a city of man full of noise and disorder, but we should take heart in knowing that within this great city of man, the City of God is present and growing. It is present here in this Cathedral and in every church where the Eucharist is present.

I would like to close with this passage from Chapter 21 of the Book of Revelation:

Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth…I also saw the holy city, a new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God as a bride adorned for her husband. I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, God’s dwelling is with the human race. He will dwell with them and they will be his people and God himself will always be with them [as their God]. He will wipe every tear from their eyes, and there shall be no more death or mourning, wailing or pain, for the old order has passed away.”

The one who sat on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” 

When the city of man becomes too much for you, make your way here and allow yourself to find silence and peace in God. In this beautiful building, we experience an architectural foreshadowing of the City of God, the New Jerusalem, that awaits us in Heaven.

Come here, remember that you are a citizen of the City of God, and then bravely go back out into the city of man, knowing that wherever you go, you bring the City of God with you.

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“The Hound of Heaven”: God’s Pursuit of You

We often hear about our deep need for God, but I don’t think that we hear enough about His intense desire for us. Our relationship with God is a two-way street: we yearn for Him, but He yearns for us even more.

The relationship between God and a soul is revealed to us in Scripture as being like that of a lover and the beloved. The Song of Songs, a biblical love poem charged with the intensity of romantic feeling, gives us a reflection of the intensity of God’s love through the symbolic search of a man for the woman he loves. As the man pursues the woman, so much more does God seek us. As beautiful as human love may be, every marriage and romantic relationship is just an image of the love God for each of his children.

Francis Thompson’s autobiographical poem, The Hound of Heaven, provides another powerful image of God’s desire for each of us. Using the image of a hound pursuing a hare, Thompson describes how God sought him through the years despite his own resistance and fear:

I FLED Him, down the nights and down the days;
I fled Him, down the arches of the years;
I fled Him, down the labyrinthine ways
Of my own mind; and in the mist of tears
I hid from Him

He describes how he continuously fled from God, who never stopped calmly and lovingly pursuing. No matter where he went, Thompson could hear

…those strong Feet that followed, followed after.
But with unhurrying chase,
And unperturbèd pace,
Deliberate speed, majestic instancy,
They beat—and a Voice beat
More instant than the Feet—
‘All things betray thee, who betrayest Me.’

He runs and runs, seeking happiness in other things, until desperate and exhausted, he gives up, and surrenders to the persistent pursuit of God, who says to him,

‘And is thy earth so marred,
Shattered in shard on shard?
Lo, all things fly thee, for thou fliest Me!

Whom wilt thou find to love ignoble thee,
Save Me, save only Me? 
All which I took from thee I did but take,
Not for thy harms,
But just that thou might’st seek it in My arms.
All which thy child’s mistake
Fancies as lost, I have stored for thee at home:
Rise, clasp My hand, and come!’

We should never forget that God’s love for us is as intense as that of the lover in the Song of Songs, and as persistent as the the hound in The Hound of Heaven.

St. Augustine once wrote, “Our hearts are restless, Lord, until they rest in Thee.” We should remember that God Himself is restless for us as well.

Christ said, “I have come to set the world on fire, and how I wish it were already kindled!” (Luke 12:49)

These are the words of a God who loves you intensely,  and who will not rest until your heart is kindled with the fire of His love.

 

My Summer Internship in Brewster, NY

After finishing my year of pastoral work at St. Benedict’s in the Bronx, I have been assigned by Cardinal Dolan to do a 10-week internship the parish of St. Lawrence O’Toole in Brewster, NY.
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Brewster is a small village of about 2,300 inhabitants located in the woody hills of southeastern Putnam County. Known as “The Hub of the Harlem Valley,” Brewster is located within 1/2 square mile and is the second-to-last train stop on the Harlem Line.

The Brewster Train Station -
The Brewster train station

Over half of the population is Latino, and many of them are day laborers. In the 2010 census, Brewster came out to have the highest concentration of Guatemalans in the entire country: they make up almost 40% of the village population.

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Many of the stores on Main St are Latino-run.
The competition! The Pentecostals recently took over the old Presbyterian church.
Our local competition: Pentecostals recently took over the old Presbyterian church.

I am looking forward to spending several weeks in this quiet part of the Archdiocese’s “upper counties”. After so much time in the city, it’s nice to be somewhere where you can hear the birds chirping.

The Church of St. Lawrence O'Toole
The Church of St. Lawrence O’Toole

I am also looking forward to getting hands-on experience at St. Lawrence O’Toole, which is known throughout the Archdiocese as a vibrant parish that attracts people from all over, thanks to innovative work of the pastor Fr. Richard Gill. I was able to introduce myself at each of the seven masses on Sunday, and was welcomed warmly by the parishioners.

A of Prospect St, on which the church and rectory are located.
A view of of Prospect St, on which the church and rectory are located.

The parish has lots of activities, and there is plenty of work for me to do. It beginning to look like it will be a busy and interesting summer. Stay tuned!

Finding Peace in the Liturgy of the Hours

The Liturgy of the Hours may only be required for priests and religious, but it is beautiful source of peace for all who take the time to pray it. Here’s why.

Before I moved back to New York last summer, I did a personal retreat at Benedictine monastery in British Columbia. Five times a day, the bell would toll and all of the monks would silently make their way to the chapel to chant the Liturgy of the Hours, as Benedictines have been doing for centuries.  I loved following the monastic rhythm, albeit for a short period.

After returning to the East Coast, I decided to get into the habit of praying the Liturgy of the Hours on my own. This form of prayer, also known as the Divine Office, is an ancient part of the Church’s liturgical life. It consists of seven daily sets (or “hours”) of prayer. (Priests and religious are required to pray five of the seven hours.) Each hour includes an opening hymn, Psalms, a spiritual Canticle, a reading from Scripture, and intercessory prayers.

Even though it is a time commitment to keep up with the Divine Office, I love it. It provides a beautiful framework for the day: each hour is a small oasis in the midst of hectic daily life, and an opportunity to refocus on “the things above” (Col 3:1).

But the Liturgy of the Hours is more than an opportunity for finding quiet time during the day. It is an essential part of the life of the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ: it is her participation in the eternal priesthood of the Son of God. The Second Vatican Council put it like this:

For he continues His priestly work through the agency of His Church, which is ceaselessly engaged in praising the Lord and interceding for the salvation of the whole world. She does this, not only by celebrating the Eucharist, but also in other ways, especially by praying the Divine Office. (Sacrosanctum Concilium # 83)

In other words, the Divine Office is one of the ways in which the Church joins Christ in his priestly role of praising God the Father and offering prayers on behalf of all creation. How awesome it is that we can be a part of this!

The Liturgy of the Hours is a temporal expression of eternal prayer of Jesus Christ. It is the endless praise of the Son of God translated into human words. Again, the Vatican Council put it well:

Christ Jesus, high priest of the new and eternal covenant, taking human nature, introduced into this earthly exile that hymn which is sung throughout all ages in the halls of heaven. He joins the entire community of mankind to Himself, associating it with His own singing of this canticle of divine praise. (Sacrosanctum Concilium       # 83)

When we commit ourselves to the ongoing rhythm of the Liturgy of the Hours, we unite ourselves to eternal praise of the Second Person of the Trinity, and in so doing we get away from the hectic and feverish pace of our daily lives. The Liturgy of the Hours provides us with a moment to go to the border between time and eternity and, in some way, cross it.

In praying the Liturgy of the Hours, we leave the horizontal dimension of the here and now and enter a vertical spiritual dimension that transcends time; we join the ancient tradition of Psalmic praise that stretches back to the Babylonian exile; we become a part of the Church’s never-ending praise of God that will continue until the end of time; we enter into the very life of the Trinity by becoming part of the Son’s praise of the Father in the Holy Spirit.

It may be not possible for you to pray all of the hours, but it is worth it just to pray Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer, the two “hinges” of the whole Office. You will find the Liturgy of the Hours to be an excellent investment of time. Whether you are in the car or at Starbucks, commuting to work or waiting for your kids to finish soccer practice, taking ten minutes to join in the eternal praise of the Son will be more than worth it! Let yourself fall into the calming rhythm of the Liturgy of the Hours and experience the peace it brings.


To get more details on how to pray the Liturgy of the Hours, I suggest checking out Coffee and Canticles. You can always buy the hard copies, but I it is good to start with the Divine Office app, which offers audio as well as text.

Finding Peace in the Liturgy

I have been busy this past week with final exams, so my post is a little shorter than usual. Nevertheless, I hope that you find it to be helpful!


Peace is not easy to find in our modern world because our it does not encourage us to look upwards towards our eternal and unchanging God. Rather, it constantly drags our attention downwards, towards the here and now, towards success and accumulation of goods. Everything around us is changing and fleeting: if we keep our attention downward, we will not find the peace that can only be found in what is eternal and stable.

This is why the liturgy, in particular, weekly Sunday Mass, is so important. When we participate in the liturgy, we make a necessary disconnect from the ever-hectic and constantly fluctuating world that drains so much of our energy.  We raise our hearts and minds to “seek the things above, where Christ is seated at the right hand of God” (Colossians 1:3). The liturgy gives us the time and place to do what we are told  in Psalm 46: “be still and know  that I am God.”

The liturgy is a place of peaceful rest. As Romano Guardini put it, “the soul needs that spiritual relaxation in which the convulsions of the will are stilled, the restlessness of struggle quietened, and the shrieking of desire silenced.”

It can be hard to take time to go to Mass, and, even if we go, it can be hard to stay focused. However, if we make the effort to be there, both in body and mind, that is the first step – God will take care of the rest. Go to Mass and allow the liturgy to raise your mind to the eternal and unchanging God, in whom you will find peace.

Five Keys to Peaceful Discernment

God-Lights

Life is complicated, and the course we should follow is rarely presented to us clearly.

It can be difficult to discern just how much we need to stand aside and let God act, and how much we ourselves should be making things happen. We have to balance between two extremes: on one hand, doing absolutely nothing and expecting God to put everything in our lap,  and, on the other hand, running ourselves ragged trying to do everything ourselves.

When discerning major changes in our lives, we need to have complete trust in God. Sometimes, trust in God will require action, other times it will require peacefully waiting on Him. In this post, I would like to propose five criteria for discerning whether to take a proposed course of action or not. (These criteria are based on the Five Steps to Peace series that I wrote in the spring.)

  1. Make sure the action…

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“We Create Reality”: The Power of Hollywood and A Christian Response

The other day, I was walking down Bleeker Street in southern Manhattan, when I noticed a commotion: to my right, a large number of people were taking out their cell phones and snapping pictures. The phones were pointed in my direction, but they were focused on someone behind me. I turned around to see a black gentleman wearing an orange ski cap sitting on a bike. I did not see his face at first, but when he turned towards me, I realized that it was Will Smith and that I had almost walked into the middle of his film shoot! It turns out that he was filming for Collateral Beauty, a movie coming out in December.

The film shoot of "Collateral Beauty" on Bleeker Street. (The snow was all imported for the filming."
The film shoot of “Collateral Beauty” on Bleeker Street. (The snow was all imported for the filming.)

Then, two weeks later, I came across another film shoot in a rather unlikely place: my seminary! St. Joseph’s Seminary is a beautiful, stately building from the turn of the last century, and somehow producers at CBS got word that we have wood-paneled conference rooms and a nice cloister garden, just what they needed to film scenes in a “Russian embassy” for an episode of Madame Secretary. Film crews and equipment descended upon Dunwoodie, and for a few days two very different worlds overlapped. Cassock-wearing seminarians shared the hallways with crew members and actors, and it seemed that both sides were mutually curious: we took pictures of them and they took pictures of us! (At one point, the lead actress Tea Leoni went up to a group of seminarians to ask for a photo with them.)

The main hall taken over by film crew members and equipment. (Photo credit: Anthony Marcella.)
The main hall taken over by film crew members and equipment. (Photo credit: Anthony Marcella.)

Our rector told us that in a conversation with representatives from CBS, he jokingly suggested that the Russian Orthodox seminary down the road from us might be a better suited to be a “Russian embassy.” The response that he got was, that the seminary would be just fine for them because  “we create reality.”

The conference room turned into "a Russian embassy."
The conference room turned into a Russian embassy.

Having come upon two film shoots in the course of two weeks, the film industry was already on my mind, but something about that nonchalant statement made me think about it even more. Obviously, what the person meant to say was that they create virtual reality, but virtual reality is still connected to and exerts an influence upon true reality. Hollywood and the film industry create virtual reality, but through it, they influence the way real people think and act. In this way, they do create reality.

This power to shape reality through virtual reality is nothing new; it is  as old as mankind itself. Since man has been telling stories and creating works of art, he has been shaping virtual realities that are extensions of his own experience and his own understanding of the real world. These artistic virtual realities are imbued with his own worldview, and all of the moral, religious, and philosophical assumptions contained therein.

This means that whoever has the ability to create artistic realities wields a considerable amount of power, power that is proportionate to the skill with which he exercises his art. The more realistic and entertaining the art, the more enthralled the viewer becomes, and the more likely he will be to assimilate the worldview of the artist. All art, but especially the art of storytelling, is a powerful way to communicate and teach philosophical, moral, and religious principles, be they true or false.

Actress Tea Leoni with a group of seminarians and faculty members. (Photo credit: Anthony Marcella.)
Actress Tea Leoni with a group of seminarians and faculty members. (Photo credit: Anthony Marcella.)

This is why both the rector of the seminary and the representatives of the Archdiocese of New York read the script of the episode of Madame Secretary before allowing CBS to use church property to film it. Knowing the power of television, they had to be sure that they would not be collaborating in anyway with a story that communicates ideas contrary to the truth.

I would suggest that we use the same type of discernment with the entertainment that we allow in our lives. We have to remember that when we watch TV, play video games, listen to music, read books, or view any other type of art, we are allowing ourselves to become part of a virtual reality, and we are thus giving the creator of the art the power to communicate his worldview and values to us. We need to be careful with that.

I am not saying that we need to be puritanical and reject all art that contains values contrary to our own. Rather, I am suggesting that we be discerning in the way that we approach it. In other words, we ought to be attentive to the values being suggested, take what is true, and reject what is false.

St. Basil the Great
St. Basil the Great

St. Basil offered some excellent advice in the 4th century when Christians were deciding what to do with pagan literature. Some extremists were advocating its complete rejection, but St. Basil was more level-headed in his approach. The holy man of God suggested the following in his Address to Young Men on the Right Use of Greek Literature:

Now, then, altogether after the manner of bees must we use these writings, for the bees do not visit all the flowers without discrimination, nor indeed do they seek to carry away entire those upon which they light, but rather, having taken so much as is adapted to their needs, they let the rest go. So we, if wise, shall take from heathen books whatever befits us and is allied to the truth, and shall pass over the rest.

The next time you sit down to watch TV or watch a movie, keep in St. Basil’s timeless advice: take what is “allied to the truth” and “pass over the rest.” Do not let Hollywood indiscriminately influence the reality of your life.

The Spiritual Value of Sleep

Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course,/ Chief nourisher in life’s feast. – Macbeth

We all know that sleep is a physical need, but I think that few  of us realize that sleep is just as much a spiritual necessity. When we sleep, we not only allow our bodies to regenerate, but we also allow our souls to rest. Sleep has spiritual value.

Scripture confirms the fact that God often does important things during sleep. For example, in Genesis 2, God made Eve after placing Adam into a deep sleep. In Genesis 15, God make’s his covenant with Abram while he is in a deep sleep. On numerous occasions, from Jacob to St. Joseph, God spoke through dreams to people in their sleep. The greatest work of God, the salvation of mankind, took place in and through the “sleep” of Christ upon the cross and in the tomb.

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Jacob’s Dream, Jose de Ribera

Throughout Scripture and Western literature, sleep has been compared often to death, and when you stop to think about it, the similarity between the two is indeed striking. Every night, when we lie down to sleep, we become, in a way, dead to all that is around us. We lose consciousness and we give up our power to react immediately to whatever may happen. We also give up our ability to work and to make money, so perhaps this is why so many of us avoid sleep or consider it, at best, as a necessary inconvenience.

Sleep does not fit with the self-image that many of us have, especially those of us with Type-A personalities who yearn for success. We hate to be out-of-control, so we deprive ourselves  of sleep and strive to be like Tim Cook (CEO of Apple) or Howard Schultz (CEO of Starbucks) who apparently do just  fine with only 4 – 5 hours of sleep a night.

While there is in fact a very small portion of humanity (1 – 3% of the population) who actually can function on only four hours of sleep a night, the rest of us need to accept the reality that we need 7 – 9 hours a night, and this is not a bad thing. In fact, our need for sleep is an opportunity for spiritual growth. Here is what I mean.

When we allow ourselves the sleep that we need, we accept the fact that we cannot always be in control. This simple admission of truth is the pre-condition for a deeper spiritual act: ceding control to God and abandoning ourselves to His Divine Providence. We can turn the simple act of going to bed into a moment of trust by saying a repeating the prayer of Jesus Christ on the cross, before he entered the sleep of death: “Father, into your hands I commend my spirit.” (Luke 23:46) By doing this, we make our acceptance of the physical needs of our bodies coincide with an acceptance of our dependence upon God. The more we do this, the more we grow in trust, a virtue that is indispensable for growing in union with God.

When we trust in God, we give Him the freedom He needs to do great things in our lives. Just as He created Eve for Adam as he slept, so will He do great things for us when we accept our personal limitations and trust completely in Him. The fact is that sometimes the best way to accept your personal limitations and trust in God is simply to go to bed and get a good night’s sleep.

Try it out: the next time you are exhausted but feel the need to keep working, resist the temptation to be Superman. Put everything into God’s hands, sleep on it, and try again the next day. You will be surprised out how much more effective you will be.

How to Fight the Temptation to Self-Loathing

Of the twelve images that I spoke about on my tour at the Metropolitan Museum of Art last Saturday, I received the most positive reactions to Jusepe de Ribera’s Tears of St. Peter. In this painting by the 17th-century stylistic descendant of Caravaggio, we see a remorseful Peter against a dark Good Friday sky entreating Heaven for his denial of Christ. The light and the composition focus on the repentant face of Peter, but there are some details that remind us of the hope and forgiveness that he is bound to receive: he leans against a rock, a reminder that he is still the Rock upon which Christ will build his Church, and the Keys of the Kingdom lie next to him – despite his sin, his dignity and responsibility remain.

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The Tears of St. Peter, Jusepe de Ribera

Two people betrayed Christ on the night of Holy Thursday and both regretted what they had done: Peter and Judas. Peter denied Christ three times, but when the cock crowed, he realized what he had done and wept bitterly. Judas betrayed Christ to the chief priests and elders, but when he saw that Jesus was condemned, he felt remorse and returned the thirty pieces of silver that he had been paid for the betrayal. Both hurt Christ, and both were remorseful. However, there is a big difference between the two of them: one despaired and the other did not. Peter repented and was eventually forgiven by Christ; Judas, on the other hand, did not trust in God’s mercy and ended up killing himself.

The devil tempts us in two different ways, both before and after we sin. Before the sin, he entices us with pleasure or gain. If we break down and sin, he employs a new type of temptation: he tempts us to hate ourselves for what we have done and to think that God would never forgive us.

The devil’s only goal is to destroy us and to take us away from God’s love. He uses whatever is at his disposal to accomplish this, be it enticement to sin or temptation to self-loathing. Sometimes, the latter can be harder to resist than the former. Even when we do repent and ask God for forgiveness, the guilt and self-loathing may linger. It is very important that we calmly and peacefully push away such feelings. Self-hatred never comes from God.

We have to realize that God’s love is so intense that nothing we can do can make His love for us any less. Jesus made that very clear to us in His Parable of the Prodigal Son. To resist the temptation of identifying ourselves with our past sins and of hating ourselves for them, we have to return to God’s love again and again. We have to put ourselves in the presence of Our Lord and bask in his unconditional love for each of us.

During the rest of this Holy Week, take time to attend the liturgies at your local in parish in which Christ’s Passion, Death, Resurrection – the ultimate manifestations of his love – will be sacramentally actualized and re-presented. As you participate in the liturgies, remember that Christ went through his Passion for you, and he would have done it even if you were the only one who needed it. As Peter did, you may feel intense remorse for your sins, but allow that sorrow to be gradually displaced by Our Lord’s intense love for you. Let His love and peace fill your heart.

Images of Mercy

I just finished up my tour of religious art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  I focused on images that have to do with mercy. Five were paintings of Christ, the Face of Mercy, and seven were images of people who had experienced the mercy of Christ in a special way: St. Mary Magdalene, St. Peter, and the Samaritan Woman.

At the end of the tour, I encouraged the attendees to take some time to be alone with Christ this Holy Week and to use these images to facilitate contemplation of his love and mercy. Below you can find the images that I used. They can also be found at Metropolitan Museum of Art’s website.

These are high resolution images that should show up well on a computer, tablet, or smartphone when you click on them. I hope that you find them to be a good aid for your prayer. Have a blessed Holy Week!

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The Trinity, Agnolo Gaddi, ca. 1390–96

 

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Christ Crowned with Thorns, Antonello da Messina, ca. 1470

 

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The Meditation on the Passion, Vittore Carpaccio, ca. 1490

 

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The Man of Sorrows, Michele Giambono, ca. 1430

 

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Pietà, Carlo Crivelli, 1476

 

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Saint Mary Magdalen Holding a Crucifix, Spinello Aretino, ca. 1395–1400

 

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The Penitent Magdalen, Corrado Giaquinto, ca. 1750

 

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The Penitent Magdalen, Georges de La Tour, ca. 1640

 

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The Denial of Saint Peter, Caravaggio, ca. 1610

 

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The Tears of Saint Peter, Jusepe de Ribera, ca. 1612–13

 

Nicolas Poussin (French, Les Andelys 1594–1665 Rome) Saints Peter and John Healing the Lame Man, 1655 Oil on canvas; 49 1/2 x 65 in. (125.7 x 165.1 cm) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Marquand Fund, 1924 (24.45.2) http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/437330
Saints Peter and John Healing the Lame Man, Nicolas Poussin, 1655

 

Benedetto Luti (Italian, Florence 1666–1724 Rome) Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1715–20 Oil on copper; 15 × 12 1/8 in. (38.2 × 30.9 cm) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Purchase, Rogers Fund, by exchange, 2015 (2015.645) http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/702752
Christ and the Woman of Samaria, Benedetto Luti, ca. 1715–20

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